I am a whale researcher and conservationist, writes Erich Hoyt, Senior Research Fellow with the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society and MarineBio’s Director of Marine Mammals. Recently I became very interested in toothfish in Antarctica. At up to 2.5 m long they can be the size of a porpoise or dolphin. Left alone, they live for up to 50 years; they don’t breed until they’re about 16 and not every year thereafter. But aside from some remarkably similar reproductive parameters how is this relevant to my interest in whales and dolphins? Continue reading
The first high seas Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Antarctic region has been declared in an area south of the South Orkney Islands. The proposal was successfully pitched by the UK delegation to the meetings last week of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) in Tasmania. The South Orkneys MPA is situated in the northern Weddell Sea, east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula — a prime area for feeding humpback whales.
At just under 94,000 sq kms, the protection of the South Orkneys MPA is of a significant size. Overnight the global area of protected waters, with this announcement, increased by 4% according to Louisa Wood, from the IUCN Global Marine Programme. The global area of protected waters now stands at 0.92% of the world ocean — still far behind the land with as much as 12% protected, according to some estimates. Continue reading
Let’s celebrate this first official World Oceans Day by recognizing the world’s 15 largest marine protected areas (MPAs) created to safeguard marine habitat around the world. Here’s the list and a bit about each one, plus some further comments and a special request below:
1. Phoenix Islands Protected Area, Kiribati (410,500 sq km) -— the largest MPA in the world, nearly the size of the land area of Sweden.
3. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and World Heritage Area, Australia (345,400sq km) -— one of the earliest MPAs and the first of any size, now 1/3 highly protected. Continue reading
South Africa has started the process to designate the Prince Edward Islands Marine Protected Area, surrounding remote Prince Edward Island and Marion Island located in the southern ocean between South Africa and Antarctica. At a sprawling 180,000 square kilometers, it is the largest marine protected area (MPA) in the Antarctic region and the sixth largest MPA in the world, about half the size of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Continue reading
The Marine Section of the Society for Conservation Biology will be hosting its first stand-alone meeting, the International Marine Conservation Congress (IMCC), from 20-24 May 2009 at George Mason University near Washington D.C. This will be an interdisciplinary meeting that will engage natural and social scientists, managers, policy-makers, and the public. The goal of the IMCC is to put conservation science into practice through public and media outreach and the development of concrete products (e.g., policy briefs, blue ribbon position papers) that will be used to drive policy change and implementation. Continue reading
WDCS Press Communication
A worldwide web for whales: The special places where whales and dolphins live and the people who know them.
Maui, Hawaii, 3rd April 2009: On the final day of the first International Conference on Marine Mammal Protected Areas, experts addressed future challenges for the management of existing and the establishment of new marine protected area networks. The more than 200 marine mammal scientists, MPA managers and other experts from 40 countries agreed that this gathering on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary was a valuable experience that needs to carry on by building an enduring network.
While humpback whales, often in sight of conference delegates, cavorted offshore on their mating grounds, a key recommendation from the conference came out of a workshop convened by WDCS Research Fellow Erich Hoyt:
“A worldwide effort must be made urgently to identify and define whale and dolphin critical habitats and hot spots,” said Hoyt. “Then we need to map this information with other species and ecogeographic data to create MPA networks in national waters and on the high seas. It is like creating a sort of worldwide web for whales and dolphins but connecting not just the animals, but the special places where they live, and the people there too.”
Conference delegates will bring these and other recommendations to the upcoming meeting of the International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC 2) in Washington DC, in late May, and they will also form part of the work plan for the IUCN WCPA High Seas MPA Task Force.
“Probably less than 1 percent of the world’s marine mammal critical habitat has been identified much less protected,” added Hoyt. “We have discussed strategies for cost-effective measures to attack this huge workload with surveys and other studies. Clearly the emphasis will need to be on rare and endangered species, but we also need to protect healthy populations so that they don’t join the endangered ranks.”
In his conference keynote, Hoyt praised the fine recent record in the high level protection in the Pacific where 10 of the world’s largest 15 MPAs are located, including the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in Australia and the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, in the Hawaiian Islands, at 362,000 sq km, the largest highly protected area in the world. But he reported that approximately 40% of the 300 existing marine mammal MPAs are clearly too small and even a higher percentage offer no real protection. MPAs in Europe, East Asia, West Africa and the Middle East were particularly small and ineffective even for protecting coastal dolphin habitat, much less that of large whale species.
“Networks will solve some of the problems of individual small size if we are clever about what we protect, but much better zoned and well-managed protection is clearly needed.”
WDCS is a sponsor of the International Conference on Marine Mammal Protected Areas. WDCS was represented with five experts, two of them Members of the Steering committee and Erich Hoyt as co-chair of the programme committee. Presentations and posters included the announcement of the South American River Dolphin Protected Area Network (SARDPAN), cetacean habitat surveys of the Pacific Islands region and Patagonia, Argentina, an introduction to the proposed MPA in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, and the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary, in Australia.
Video clips from an interview conducted by the ICMMPA press team with Erich Hoyt are available on the conference website for download http://www.icmmpa.org/?page_id=516
Graphs about MPAs, as well as “Zoning”, a management approach within MPAs, and high quality images of whales and dolphins can be provided upon request.
For further information please contact:
Erich Hoyt, WDCS Senior Research Fellow, MPA Programme Lead, on site at the ICMMPA in Hawaii; T. + 44 7929 879 256, E-Mail. firstname.lastname@example.org
Press contact: Nicolas Entrup, WDCS Continental Europe, T. + 49 171 1423 117, E-Mail: Nicolas.email@example.com
The first ever conference on Marine Mammal Protected Areas will be held on the island of Maui in Hawai’I from March 29 – April 3, 2009.
The theme is MPA Networks and Networking: Making Connections. The conference will bring together MPA managers, scientists, and educators from around the world to engage in sessions that will provide a forum for sharing information on approaches to marine mammal management and conservation as well as the design and management of MPA networks.
“Networks are a hot issue in marine habitat conservation,” said Erich Hoyt, MarineBio Director of Marine Mammals, WDCS MPA Campaign Head, and a member of the conference steering committee and co-chair of the programme committee. “We are beginning to realize that without networks of MPAs, we don’t stand a chance of conferring adequate protection to diverse species and habitats. Humpback whales, for example, breed in shallow subtropical waters and feed in cold temperate areas around productive upwellings and ocean fronts.
Protecting their habitats can mean a network extending over the waters of several countries. It will help greatly if all the managers of these MPAs can work together for conservation.”
The ICMMPA conference is being co-hosted by the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, NOAA and the NMFS Office of International Affairs. Supporters and benefactors include the governments of Australia and Monaco, the US National Park Service, NOAA Marine Debris Program, International Whaling Commission, and WDCS, the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society.
Participants are already confirmed from more than 20 countries including: Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Bangladesh, Sao Tome et Principe, Fiji, Micronesia (FSM), Samoa, France, Italy, Greece, Spain, Ukraine, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, UK and the USA. For more information, go to www.icmmpa.org.
The good news? A survey of how well the world’s coral reefs are being protected was conducted. The bad news? Less than 2% of the world’s coral reefs are being protected. This is the problem that I have with Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) – theoretically it’s a great idea. But when put into practice, it seems most MPAs are too small to make much of an impact. Continue reading
This is extremely troubling. What good are policies and plans if they’re written—then ignored or implemented but poorly monitored? What can we do to change this? Again, this seems a perfect example for why the world needs a global governing body with power to enforce and monitor policies. Is that too unrealistic to even consider?
World’s coral reefs left vulnerable by paper parks
First-ever analysis reveals that most coral reef protected areas are too small, far apart and are at risk from poaching and external human threats
MPAs are designed to limit human activities in a particular location to protect the marine ecosystem within their boundaries. This new analysis provides an evaluation of the world’s coral reef MPAs based on their regulations on extraction, prevention of poaching, incidence of external human threats such as pollution, coastal development and overfishing, MPAs size and MPA distance to neighbor protected areas. Continue reading